本地能运行的C程序,为什么在LeetCode上会失败?

在做LeetCode第22题时,https://leetcode-cn.com/problems/generate-parentheses/

我一开始写了下面这些代码

void generateOneByOne(char *sublist, char ***result, int left, int right, int index, int* returnSize)
{
    //终止条件,使用完所有的括号
    if (left == 0 && right == 0){
        int new_size = *returnSize + 1;
        //如果原来为空
        if ( *result == NULL ) {
            *result = (char **)malloc( sizeof(char*) *  new_size);
        } else{
            //如果不为空,则要重新分配下内存
            *result = (char **)realloc(*result, new_size * sizeof(char *));
        }
        //增加新的数据
        (*result)[*returnSize] = (char *)malloc( sizeof(char) * strlen(sublist) );
        strcpy((*result)[*returnSize], sublist);
        *returnSize = new_size;
    }
    if ( left > 0){
        sublist[index] = '(';
        index++;
        generateOneByOne(sublist, result, left - 1, right, index, returnSize);
        //恢复现场
        index--;

    }
    if ( right > left){
        sublist[index] = ')';
        index++;
        generateOneByOne(sublist, result, left, right - 1, index, returnSize);
        index--;

    }

}
//result, 一开始**result
char ** generateParenthesis(int n, int* returnSize){
    int str_len = n * 2 + 1;
    char *substring = (char *)malloc(sizeof(char) * str_len);
    substring[str_len] = '\0';
    char **result = NULL;
    generateOneByOne(substring, &result, n, n,0, returnSize);
    return result;

}

在本地运行的时候,是没有任何问题,而在LeetCode上运行时, 就报错了,

=================================================================
==29==ERROR: AddressSanitizer: heap-buffer-overflow on address 0x602000000014 at pc 0x000000401d79 bp 0x7ffe252ab3d0 sp 0x7ffe252ab3c8
WRITE of size 1 at 0x602000000014 thread T0
    #2 0x7f36d55b22e0 in __libc_start_main (/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6+0x202e0)
0x602000000014 is located 0 bytes to the right of 4-byte region [0x602000000010,0x602000000014)
allocated by thread T0 here:
    #0 0x7f36d6e612b0 in malloc (/usr/local/lib64/libasan.so.5+0xe82b0)
    #3 0x7f36d55b22e0 in __libc_start_main (/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6+0x202e0)
Shadow bytes around the buggy address:
  0x0c047fff7fb0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
  0x0c047fff7fc0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
  0x0c047fff7fd0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
  0x0c047fff7fe0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
  0x0c047fff7ff0: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
=>0x0c047fff8000: fa fa[04]fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa
  0x0c047fff8010: fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa
  0x0c047fff8020: fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa
  0x0c047fff8030: fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa
  0x0c047fff8040: fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa
  0x0c047fff8050: fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa
Shadow byte legend (one shadow byte represents 8 application bytes):
  Addressable:           00
  Partially addressable: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 
  Heap left redzone:       fa
  Freed heap region:       fd
  Stack left redzone:      f1
  Stack mid redzone:       f2
  Stack right redzone:     f3
  Stack after return:      f5
  Stack use after scope:   f8
  Global redzone:          f9
  Global init order:       f6
  Poisoned by user:        f7
  Container overflow:      fc
  Array cookie:            ac
  Intra object redzone:    bb
  ASan internal:           fe
  Left alloca redzone:     ca
  Right alloca redzone:    cb
==29==ABORTING

错误太长,而且我也看不懂。于是我按照我的经验,检索了" AddressSanitizer: heap-buffer-overflow "相关内容,一个可靠回答在https://stackoverflow.com/questions/51579267/addresssanitizer-heap-buffer-overflow-on-address

简单都说,就是通常的C编译器是不会检查边界问题的,也就是如果我定义了int a[10],我访问a[100]也不会提示错误。但是,如果你在编译的时候加上-fsanitize=address参数,程序运行的时候就会做边界检查,在越界的时候报错。

因此我的源代码中存在了我没有发现的越界行为,你能看出是哪里吗?

第一处是substring[str_len] = '\0', 大小为N的数组,最后一位是N-1。

第二处错误在(*result)[*returnSize] = (char *)malloc( sizeof(char) * strlen(sublist) );中,新申请的内存大小应该是sizeof(char) * (strlen(sublist) + 1), 需要放在最后的'\0';

此外,对于这种“明明我可以”的报错,官方建议你绕行C/C++,换个编程语言

C/C++
The most frequent culprit causing undefined behavior is out-of-bounds array access. These bugs could be hard to debug, so good luck. Or just give up on C/C++ entirely and code in a more predictable language, like Java. :)

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